All About JUDO
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SEE ALSO: AIKIDO, JU-JITSU, KARATE, KENDO
Fouls and misconduct The competition area
Judo competition area
The judo competition areaOVERVIEW
Judo is a form of martial art. Two contestants use balance, leverage, and timing to throw or pin the opponent.
Contestants face each other at a distance of 4 metres (13 feet), and bow to each other when the referee calls hajime to start the contest.
The duration of the contest for World Championships and the Olympic Games is five minutes for men, and four minutes for women. There is a ten minute rest period between contests.DETAILED RULES
A contestant wins the contest immediately if they score an ippon.
Points do not build up in judo, except for a waza-ari. A waza-ari counts as seven points, and two waza-ari makes an ippon. An ippon scores ten points. A yuko scores five points, and a koka three points.
Contestants are judged on throwing technique (nagewaza) and holding technique (katamewaza).
Contestants may apply ground techniques (ne-waza):
- If the attacker moves into ne-waza after throwing the opponent.
- When one contestant falls.
- When ne-waza follows a successful stranglehold or lock the standing position.
- After any skilful technique that does not qualify as a throw.
Ippon is awarded:
- When a contestant throws the other onto their back in a controlled manner with considerable force and speed.
- When a contestant lifts the other to shoulder height.
- When a contestant holds the other for more than 30 seconds.
- When a contestant gives up by tapping their hand or foot or saying maitta - I give up.
- When the effect of a strangle technique or armlock is obvious.
- After two waza-ari.
Waza-ari is awarded:
- When a contestant throws, with control, but without correct technique, the other contestant .
- When a contestant holds the other for more than 25 seconds but less than 30.
Yuko is awarded:
- When a contestant throws the other contestant with control, but without the technique to score ippon or waza-ari.
- When a contestant holds the other for more than 20 seconds but less than 25.
Koka is awarded:
- When a contestant throws, with control, the other onto their thighs or buttocks with speed and force.
- When a contestant holds the other for more than 10 seconds but less than 20.
Fouls and misconduct
Like points, penalties do not accumulate. But the awarding of a further penalty automatically cancels the previous one. The following penalty must always be higher than the previous one. When a contestant is penalized, the opponents gains points.
Awarded against any contestant who has committed a slight infringement. The opponent is awarded koka.
- Making an action to give the impression of an attack when there is no intention of doing so.
- To put a hand, arm, or foot directly in the opponent's face.
Awarded against any contestant who has committed a serious infringement, or a second shido. The opponent is awarded yuko.
- Kicking the hand or arm of the opponent with the hand or arm to make the opponent release their grip.
- To bend the opponent's fingers back to break their grip.
Awarded against any contestant who has committed a very serious infringement, or a second chui. The opponent is awarded waza-ari.
- Any action which could injure or endanger the opponent, or which is against the spirit of judo.
- Disregarding the referee's instructions.
Awarded against any contestant who has committed a very serious infringement, or a second keikoku. The opponent is awarded ippon.
- Intentionally falling backwards when the opponent is clinging to the infringing contestants back when either contestant controls the movements of the other.
- Wearing a hard or metallic object (covered or not).
There is a referee, who remains inside the contest area (within the red square) and conducts the bout.
There are two judges, who stay outside the red lines, at opposite corners and assist the referee. The referee consults them before awarding keikoku and hansoku-make.
At the end of an undecided contest, the referee places the competitors in their starting positions and calls hantei. The judges raise a red or white flag according to who they think should have won. The referee also makes a decision and the majority is the winner. The referee can be out-voted by the judges.
The competition area (shiaijo)
The mat size can vary between 14 metres and 16 metres square. The actual contest area is 10 metres square. The area within and including the red lines is called the 'contest area'.
It is covered by tatami or other similar material, and is generally green in colour. The red area is approximately 1 metre (3 feet) wide and is called the 'danger zone'. The area outside this is called the 'safety area'. It is 3 metres (10 feet) wide.
There will also be a red and white tape in the contest area, the starting positions for the contestants.
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