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Face-offs Fouls and misconduct
Markings and zones Why a penalty may be awarded
Moving around Playing positions
Goals Types of pass
Icing Equipment
Offside Glossary

ice hockey rink

The ice hockey rink


History of the game

Objective: Each team must try and score more goals than the other. The team at the end of the match with the most goals wins. The players will skate around on the ice, using their hockey sticks to hit the puck into the opposing goal.

Ice hockey is usually played in an arena with an electrically cooled floor to keep the surface frozen. This is called a rink (or ice rink). It can be played outdoors, although most organised matches are played in rinks.

There are two teams, each with six players on the ice at any one time. There are substitute players, and the total number of a team may be up to 20 players. The games are played in three periods lasting 20 minutes each. The clock is stopped whenever the puck goes out of play, or play is stopped for whatever reason.

There is a 15-minute break between each period, and each team is allowed to take one 30-second time-out in the course of normal or overtime.

If the scores are equal at the end of 60 minutes, the game is declared a tie (a draw), unless a winner must be decided (for example, for a tournament match).



To start the game, a face-off takes place. A player from each team will stand opposite the other player, facing the opposing goal, inside one of the face-off circles. At the beginning of the game, the face-off will take place in the centre circle. The centre circle face-off is also used to restart the game after a goal, and at the beginning of each period.

If the puck goes out of bounds, or off the playing area, a face-off will be used to restart play, in the closest face-off circle to the point where the puck went out or off. This is why there are four face-off circles in addition to the centre circle.

The referee will drop the puck onto the ice at a spot exactly between the two players, who will stand behind the lines either side of the spot in the centre of the face-off circle. The players will then attempt to gain possession of the puck. If they are in the centre circle and there are no lines, the players will stand a stick length apart from each other. The sticks must be touching the ice.

If the face-off happens as a result of one team pushing forward, being on the attack, then the attacking player in their own attacking half of the rink must place the stick on the ice first. There will be only two players and the referee involved in the face-off. All other players must be standing up, and in an on-side position, and not in the face-off area.

The home team decides which end to aim for first. Play changes end at the start of each period. If there is not a home team (for example, a tournament match), a coin will be tossed, and the winner of the toss decides which end to aim for.

If both team benches are on the same side of the rink, then the home team defends the goal nearest their own bench first.

Markings and zones

This is the ice hockey equivalent of a pitch, field, or court. So here is a little information about the rink, the area in which ice hockey is played.

rink markings and zones

Rink markings and zones.

The arrows mark which goals teams A and B would aim for, and how they would see the different zones in ice hockey.

The semi-circle in front of the actual goal is called the goal crease. The red spots in the neutral zone are face-off spots.

The centre line is the red line in the middle of the ice. The goal lines are the red lines at each end of the rink, including the line in the goal.

Moving around

The puck is moved around by passing and dribbling. Dribbling is the action of nudging the puck around using small stick movements, and keeping the puck to yourself, rather than passing, which involves harder, sweeping movements, and knocking the puck to another player.

Usually the puck is moved around with the blade of the stick, although the puck can also be kicked. A goal cannot be scored by a kick, nor by deflecting off someone after it has been kicked.

The puck can be passed between members of the same team within the defensive zone, although it can only be passed across the red centre line to a team-mate, if it is followed immediately by the player who hit it. Otherwise it is offside.

A player cannot carry the puck back into their own defensive zone, unless the team is a member or more short due to penalties. Delaying the game deliberately is not allowed.


A goal is scored when the puck completely crosses the goal line.

It is possible for a defending player to score an own goal (putting the puck into their own goal), although it would be credited to the last attacking player to touch the puck before it went into the goal.

If an attacking player scores a goal, the goal is credited to that player. An assist is credited to the other attacking player or players involved in play just before the goal was scored. No more than two assists are given for each goal. No assist is given for an own goal.

If a player strikes the puck, and it is deflected into the goal off the body or stick of another player on the same team, then that player receives the credit for scoring the goal, and the player who originally hit the puck receives the assist.

If, however, it is deflected off a member of the opposing team, the rules for own goals apply, and the player who hit the puck is credited with the goal, and of course, no assist would be credited.

A player cannot receive credit for both a goal and an assist in the same move. Assists do not make a difference to the score; goals do. Assists are recorded for statistical purposes only.

The goal crease is the semi-circle marked in front of the goal itself. An attacking player cannot step into, onto, or put their stick into the goal crease unless the puck is in there aswell. If a player illegally steps into the goal crease and scores a goal, the goal is disallowed, and a face-off takes place on the neutral zone face-off spot nearest the attacking zone of the offending team.

If the offending player was pushed into the area, and scores a goal, then the goal may count, if the referee decides that the player did not have enough time to get out of the crease.


If a player shoots the puck from behind their own side of the red centre line, to beyond the opposing teams goal line, the puck is iced.

When this happens, the referee will conduct a face-off at one of the face-off spots in the offending teams half of the rink.

There are four instances when the puck cannot be declared as iced:

- The offending team is short-handed due to penalties. See below.

- If it goes into the goal - this counts as a valid goal.

- If it crosses the goal line directly from a face-off.

- If the puck touches any part of a member of the opposing team, or in the opinion of the linesman, could have been played by a member of the opposing team, except the goalkeeper.


There is in ice hockey, as in many other sports, a rule called offside.

A player is offside if:

- The player receives the puck from behind the opposing blue line, while being in front of the blue line.

offside example

In this diagram, with the arrow pointing towards the opponents goal, player B is inside the opponents blue line, so if they receive the puck in that position, then they are offside. Player A could receive the puck quite legally, however, as that player is behind the blue line.

It is worth noting that the players stick may be across the blue line, and they can still receive the puck, as long as both their skates are behind the blue line.

- The player is behind the blue line on the opponents side of the rink, and a member of the same team brings the puck over that line into the opponents zone.

- The player is standing in the opponents end of the rink, with both skates over the centre red line, and receives a puck that has been passed from behind that players own blue line.

The player can only enter a zone if the puck is in front of them, or they are in control of the puck.

An offside decision can be invalidated if:

- The defending team passes or carries the puck into the neutral zone.

- All attacking players in that zone for the offside, leave that zone.

As with most sports, there is a difference between being offside and being in an offside position. As long as a player does not take part in the game, by receiving the puck or interfering with play until they are in an on-side position, the offside penalties do not apply.

After an offside decision, play is restarted by a face-off on one of the face-off spots or circles closest to the offending teams attacking zone.


So far, the rules for general play have been looked at. What happens if the rules are not followed? There are a group of official people present at games to ensure that the rules are adhered to.

International matches are presided over by one referee and two linesmen, who are backed up by a game timekeeper, a penalty timekeeper, an official scorer and two goal judges. National Federations are allowed to use two referees instead of one referee and two linesmen.

Note: The terms linesman/linesmen have been used in the text. This is not to suggest that the job is for males only, but the majority of line officials are male, so that is how they are referred to here. The term lineswoman / linsewomen should be substituted where necessary, as the term 'linesperson' is not really used in general terminology.

Referee - has total jurisdiction (control) over players and other officials. The decision of the referee is final. They wear black trousers, and official sweaters or shirts which do not clash with either team's shirts.

The referee is responsible for awarding penalties, and makes decisions regarding disputed goals, and disciplines players.

Linesmen - mainly responsible for reporting when offsides and icing the puck have taken place. The line official also stops play when the puck goes out of the playing area, or is interfered with by an ineligible person. The line official also stops play if the puck is hit with the stick above shoulder height, or if the goal has been moved from its original position.

Apart from the face-offs used to start the game, and periods of the game, or after a goal has been scored, which the referee takes care of, the linesman conducts the other face-offs. The referee may ask the linesman to conduct any of the other face-offs detailed above. The referee may also consult the linesmen for advice if there is any doubt about a refereeing decision.

Goal judges - they are positioned in a specially provided area behind the goal, and it is their responsibility to determine whether the puck crossed the goal line and went into the goal. In the British game, they also count shots on goal.

Penalty box attendant - after awarding a penalty, the referee will say what has happened, which player was at fault, and how long the penalty will be. The penalty box attendant will record this information, and notes the name of the player taking the penalty shot, and the outcome.

The penalty box attendant is responsible for making sure that players serve the correct penalties, and tells the referee if and when a player receives a second major or misconduct penalty during a game.

Official scorer - before the start of the game the coach or manager of each team gives a list of all eligible players and the team line-up to the official scorer. The referee then makes the lists available to the opposing team. The scorer also keeps a record of goals and goal-scorers, assists, penalty shots, all players involved in the game, and also when a substitute goalkeeper comes into play.

Game timekeeper - records the start and finish time of each game, and actual playing time (if play is stopped). The timekeeper also tells the referee when the period starts and finishes, and will also make some signal when there is a minute left of play in the first and second period, and two minutes left in the last period.

Fouls and misconduct

There are six main types of penalties which can be awarded.

Minor penalty
A player is sent off the ice for two minutes. No substitutes are allowed during that time. If a goalkeeper receives a penalty, it is served by another member of the team.

Bench penalty
A player is sent of the ice for two minutes (except the goalkeeper), but it does not have to be the offending player who goes off the ice. The coach or manager will make the decision about who goes off. If a team is short-handed by one or more players serving penalties and a goal is scored, the player can return to the ice.

Major penalty
A player is sent off the ice for five minutes. If the same players has another major penalty awarded against them, they are ruled out of the rest of game. A substitute may take their place after five minutes. Again, if the goalkeeper is at fault, another player will serve the penalty.

Misconduct penalty
A player is sent off the ice for ten minutes. A substitute may be brought on immediately, but the offending player may not rejoin play until the first stop of play after the ten minute penalty.

Game misconduct penalty
A player is sent off the ice for the rest of the game, and usually goes to the dressing room. A substitute can be brought on immediately.

Gross misconduct penalty
A player is sent off the ice, and misses all games until the appropriate authority deals with the incident.

Match penalty
A player is sent off the ice for the rest of the game, and usually goes to the dressing room. A substitute can be brought on after five minutes.

Goalkeeper penalties

If the goalkeeper commits a minor, major, misconduct penalty, they are not sent to the bench. The goalkeepers penalty will be served by a team member who was on the ice at the time of the offence.

If the goalkeeper receives a match penalty, they are out of the game. Also if a goalkeeper receives two major penalties in a game, it becomes a game misconduct penalty. The goalkeeper is then out of the game, and the substitute goalkeeper will enter play.

Penalty shots

Following an infringement of the rules which may require a penalty shot (this will not include a major, misconduct, or match penalty), the non-offending team has the option of:
- accepting the penalty shot
- having a minor penalty awarded against the offending player

If the penalty follows a break of the rules that would earn a major, misconduct, or match penalty, the non-offending team do not get a choice. The penalty shot must be taken.

A penalty shot is awarded when the referee judges that a player (who had only the goalkeeper to get past) was stopped from scoring a goal by any infringement of the rules, either by a player or official on or off the ice.

The player who is to take the penalty shot stands alongside the centre face-off spot. The referee will place the puck on the spot, and it is then played from there in an attempt to get past the goalkeeper, who is the only person allowed to defend the penalty shot.

Once the puck has been hit, the penalty shot is deemed to have been taken. No goal can be scored from a shot after the first, and the penalty shot is finished when the puck crosses the goal line, whether it is into or past the net.

The goalkeeper stays in the crease until the penalty taker has touched the puck.

The player who takes the penalty is decided by the type of the infringement. If the penalty shot is awarded for any of the following:

- Deliberately displacing (moving) the goal during the breakaway
- Hooking from behind
- Interfering with an opponent who is not in possession of the puck
- Entering the game illegally (for example, by coming onto the ice when there are already enough members of the team in play)
- Throwing a stick
- Tripping from behind

the player fouled or involved in the incident takes the penalty shot.

For any other infringement, the coach or manager of the non-offending team will nominate a player to take the penalty shot.

When a penalty shot is being taken, the other players stand at the side of the rink, behind the red centre line. The game clock is stopped while the penalty shot is taken.

If a goal is scored, the face-off takes place at the centre face-off circle. If a goal is not scored, the face-off is taken at one of the face-off spots in the end zone where the penalty shot was attempted.

Why would one of these penalties be awarded?

Minor penalty

- Arguing with or disputing the decision of any official during a game. If the player continues to break this rule, the minor becomes a misconduct.
- Stopping play for adjustment to clothing.
- Not dropping a broken stick. Players can play without a stick. If the goalkeeper's stick breaks, play continues until stopped by a valid reason for stopping.
- Running, jumping, or charging into an opponent, or pushing an opponent from behind. This can be minor or major according to the judgement of the referee.
- A double minor (four minutes) is given against a player who fouls the goalkeeper inside the goal crease. A foul on the goalkeeper outside the crease may still earn a single minor, or a major at the discretion of the referee.
- Physical contact with another player after the whistle has been blown, if the referee decides that the offending player had time to avoid the contact. The referee will award a minor or major penalty.
- Cross-checking an opponent gains either a minor or major penalty, to be given at the discretion of the referee.
- Delaying the game by deliberately putting the puck out of the playing area during a stoppage in play.
- Delaying the game by deliberately displacing the goal. Play stops at once if the goal is moved.
- Holding or playing the puck along the boards at the side of the rink, to stop play.
- Using an elbow or knee to foul an opponent. The referee will decide whether this deserves a major or minor penalty.
- Deliberately falling on or gathering the puck with the body, or picking it up. This does not apply to goalkeepers. If a defending players does this in the goal crease, a penalty shot is awarded, but nothing else.
- Responding to physical fouls (like punching). The player who starts the physical incident will be penalized, aswell as the other player, if they have retaliated.
- The goalkeeper must not hold the puck for any longer than three seconds.
- The goalkeeper must not deliberately drop the puck onto the net.
- Tripping an opponent with any part of the body or stick.
- Carrying the stick above shoulder height, especially in a way that could be a risk to other players.
- Holding an opponent with the body or stick. Holding an opponents face or head will incur a major penalty.
- Hooking an opponent with the stick.
- Interfering or trying to interfere with an opponent who does not have the puck.
- Striking (slashing), or attempting to strike, an opponent with the stick. Hitting sticks is not an offence if it occurs during play.

Bench minor
- A player does not go straight to the penalty bench or dressing room when ordered to do so by the referee.
- A player or official uses foul language to any person while on the ice.
- A player or team official, while off the ice, prevents or attempts to prevent any official from doing their job properly.
- A team official bangs the boards.
- A team does not put the correct number of players on the ice after the referee has asked them to start play.

Major penalty
- If a player causes an opponent to crash into the boards as a result of tripping, elbowing, or other physical infraction, the referee may award a major penalty, based on the violence of the incident.
- Running, jumping, or charging into an opponent, or pushing an opponent from behind. This can be minor or major according to the judgement of the referee.
- A double minor (four minutes) is given against a player who fouls the goalkeeper inside the goal crease. A foul on the goalkeeper outside the crease may still earn a single minor, or a major at the discretion of the referee.
- Physical contact with another player after the whistle has been blown, if the referee decides that the offending player had time to avoid the contact. The referee will award a minor or major penalty.
- Cross-checking an opponent gains either a minor or major penalty, to be given at the discretion of the referee.
- Using an elbow or knee to foul an opponent. The referee will decide whether this deserves a major or minor penalty. If the non-offending player is injured, it is automatically a major penalty.
- Causing injury (drawing blood) to an opponent as a result of carrying the stick above shoulder height, or hooking.
- Holding an opponent with the body or stick. Holding an opponents facemask can be reduced to a minor penalty at the discretion of the referee.
- Striking (slashing), or attempting to strike, an opponent with the stick. Hitting sticks is not an offence if it occurs during play. The referee may reduce this to a minor, but if the non-offending player is injured, then it is automatically a major.
- Swinging the stick at another player during a tackle, or fight, will be an immediate major, or possibly a match penalty.

Misconduct penalty
- A player or official uses foul language to any person before, during, or after the game, except in the area close to the players bench.
- Deliberately knocking the puck away from an official who is trying to get it.
- Deliberately throwing any equipment out of the playing area.
- Banging the boards with a stick or any other equipment.
- Not going to the penalty bench after being sent there by the referee.
- Inciting an opponent into conceding a penalty after receiving a warning from the referee.
- Entering the referees crease while the referee is talking to another official. If this is on the way to the penalty bench, then no foul is committed.
- Body-checking, tripping, holding with the hands or stick, or otherwise physically interfering with any game official.
- Continuing to fight or be involved in any incident after being told to stop by the referee.
- Fighting off the ice. If one player is off the ice, and one player is on, both players can be regarded as being on the ice, and can receive a match penalty.

Game misconduct penalty
- Continued involvement in any action that has been awarded a misconduct penalty.
- Using obscene gestures anywhere on the ice before, during, or after the game. Any team official who commits misconduct receives a game misconduct penalty.

Gross misconduct penalty
- Any action which affects the smooth running of the game. This rule applies to both players and team officials.
- Any attempt to deliberately injure an official during a game.

Match penalty
- Deliberately injuring, or attempting to injure an opponent.
- Starting a fight.
- Kicking, or attempting to kick an opponent.
- Swinging the stick at an opponent during a physical confrontation.

Penalties concerning throwing
If something is thrown onto the ice from anywhere in the rink, the following rules apply:

- If thrown by a player, a minor penalty, and a game misconduct penalty.
- If thrown by a team official, a game misconduct penalty, and the team receive a bench minor against them.
- If thrown by someone (and it is unclear who) of the team in the area of the bench, that team receive a bench minor against them.

If a player or team official deliberately throws a stick (or other object) in the direction of the puck in their defending zone, the referee will allow play to continue.

If a goal is not scored, a penalty shot is awarded to the team whose player was prevented from getting the puck by the opponent throwing the stick. The non-offending player would take the penalty shot.

If the player attacking had an unattended goal to aim at, and something was thrown at the puck, which interfered with it, and that prevents the shot at goal, the referee will award the goal.

A major penalty is awarded against any player (goalkeepers included) who throws their stick, or other object, onto the ice, no matter which zone the puck is in at the time. However, if a penalty shot is awarded

Notes about penalties
- Penalties can be awarded after the game has ended. While the players are on the ice, the rules apply.

- If a player receives a minor and major penalty at the same time, the major penalty is served first. If a player receives any two penalties together, they are served one after the other, not both at once.

- If a player receives a minor or major penalty, and a misconduct penalty, the player will serve the misconduct penalty of ten minutes, and another member of the team leaves the game to serve the serve the minor or major penalty. That player returns to the ice after the two (or five) minutes of the lesser penalty have been served.

Playing positions

playing positions

Playing positions

Who does what? (Left to right) Who does what? (Right to left)
A Goalkeeper 1 Goalkeeper
B Right defence 2 Left defence
C Left defence 3 Right defence
D Centre 4 Centre
E Right wing 5 Left wing
F Left wing 6 Right wing
Before the start of the game, both teams give a list of all eligible players to the referee or official scorer, containing their starting line-up. The visiting team gives their list to the official person first. If there is not a home or away team, both teams give their lists to the official person together.

Types of pass

Blind pass - a pass made without seeing who is to receive it

Breaking pass - a pass made to a team-mate who is accelerating ready for a breakaway

Drop pass - when a player leaves the puck behind for a teammate to pick up

Flat pass - a pass where the puck travels along the ice

Flip pass - a pass where the puck is lifted so it goes over the opponent and /or their stick

Flip shot - a shot where the puck is flipped up towards the goal

Forehand shot - a shot played on the left by a right-handed player, and vice versa

Hard pass - a hard, fast pass

Lift pass - a pass made so that it goes over the top of any person in the way

Line pass / Two-line pass - a team violation, when a puck is passed across two or more lines without being touched. Play is stopped for a face-off. This is a type of offside. Note: This rule does not apply in Britain

Off-the-board pass - a pass which reaches a team-mate after bouncing off the boards

Pass-out - a pass from behind the opposing goal, to a team member in front of the goal

Poke / Poke check - a quick jab or thrust to the puck or opponent's stick to knock the puck away

Push pass - to move the puck up the ice by pushing it rather than hitting it

Slap shot - the player raises the stick in a backswing, with the strong hand held low on the shaft and the other hand on the end as a pivot. As the stick comes down toward the puck, the player leans into the stick to put power behind the shot and add speed to the puck, this produces an extremely high speed (up to 120 miles per hour) shot, but is less accurate than a wrist shot

Snap / Snap pass - a quick pass made with a snap of the wrist


The rink
The rink should measure between 56 and 61 metres (60 to 66 yards) long, and between 26 and 30 metres (28 and 33 yards) wide - for International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) matches, the measurements should be 60 to 61 metres (65 to 66 yards) long and 29 to 30 metres (32-33 yards) wide. Olympic ice hockey is played under IIHF rules.

All rinks should be surrounded by a wooden or plastic fence, known as boards, which should rise from the level of the ice, to 1.20 and 1.22 metres (3 feet 9 and 4 feet) upwards. The entire playing area is usually white, with doors opening into the playing area opening inwards, not towards the playing area.

The corners of the rink are not right angles, but curved, with a radius of 7 to 8.5 metres (23 to 28 feet). The rinks usually have shatter-proof glass or perspex as extensions of the boards to protect the crowd better. The players also wear protective clothing, as the puck could cause serious injury if it hit someone.

The goal measures 1.83 metres (6 feet) wide, by 1.22 metres (4 feet) high. The net will be attached to the posts, and the goal will be between 60 centimetres and 1.12 metres (2 feet and 3 feet 3) deep. The goalposts and crossbar are painted red. The rest of the framework is painted white.

The sticks are made of wood or any other material approved by the IIHF, such as aluminium or plastic. The maximum length of the stick is 1.52 metres (4 feet 3 inches), measured from the heel of the blade, to the end of the shaft. The maximum length of the blade is 32 centimetres (12 and a half inches). The blade is between 5 and 7.5 centimetres (2 and 3 inches) wide.

The goalkeepers stick is slightly larger and the maximum width at any point is 9 centimetres (3 and a half inches) except at the heel, where it can be 11.5 centimetres (4 and a half inches). The length of the blade is slightly larger aswell, a maximum of 39 centimetres (15 inches).

The puck is a solid cylinder, made from vulcanised rubber, or other approved material. It is 2.54 centimetres (1 inch) thick, and 7.62 centimetres (3 inches) across. It is usually black. It weighs about 156 to 170 grammes (5 and a half to 6 ounces).

All the players of the same team must dress in the same uniform, and wear the same colour trousers, stockings, sweater, and helmet. Each player wears a number, at least 20 centimetres (7 and three quarter inches) high on the back of the sweater, and sometimes also numbers on each upper arm. The captain also has a 'C' on the front of the sweater, 8 centimetres (3 inches) high. The numbers must be visible, and a contrasting colour.

All players wear a helmet with chin strap. Goalkeepers wear a full face mask. Face masks are compulsory in all IIHF matches, for players of 20 years old and under. Players born after 1974 must wear visors. Obviously face masks are recommended for all players.

Goalkeepers wear leg guards, larger gloves (to help catch the puck) and leg, chest and arm protectors. Apart from gloves, headgear, and goalkeeper pads, all protective gear must be worn underneath the clothing.


Back-checking - when players attempt to regain the puck while skating towards their own goal

Body-checking - bumping into a player while, attempting to gain possession of the puck

Breakaway - a quick move out of defence, often when there are no other players other than the goalkeeper between the attacking players and goal

Break-out - an entire team moving along the rink, when in possession of the puck

Cage / Goal cage - another name for the goal

Check - breaking up an attacking move (tackle)

Check back - skating back towards your own goal to help the defence

Cross-checking - holding a stick with both hands to check an opponent with the shaft of the stick, with no part of the stick touching the ice

Deflection - if the puck is hit by a player, and it hits, and bounces off another player on either team

End zones - the two zones either side of the neutral zone

High-sticking - to carry a stick above shoulder-height

Hip checking - using the hip to knock an opponent off course

Hooking - using the blade of the stick to hook a players body or stick

Last play face-off - face-off held at the spot where the puck was last legally played before stopping of play

Line change - when the entire forward line and/or defensive line are replaced at once

Loose puck - A puck that is on open ice and not controlled by either team.

Off-ice officials / Minor officials - officials not positioned on the ice, scores, timekeeper, penalty timekeeper, judges

One-timer - A player who shoots immediately upon receiving a pass without stopping the puck.

Penalty-killing - defensive play of a team which has less players on the ice due to penalties

Power play - attacking play by a team which has a numerical advantage due to penalties. The attacking team moves into the opponents end zone and tries to keep the puck that side of the blue line

Ragging - keeping possession of the puck by clever stickhandling, often used by a shorthanded team to use time

Roughing - excessive physical contact during play

Short-handed - if a team has more players on the penalty bench than the opponents

Sin bin - slang term for penalty bench

Sudden death overtime - an overtime period that ends as soon as one team scores a goal, deciding the winner and finishing the game

Team official - any person involved with the team who is not a player, could be a coach, manager, trainer, etc

Time-out - a 30-second break in play, called by one team

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