All About BIATHLON
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SEE ALSO: COMBINED ATHLETICS AND SKIING
As the name suggests, 'bi' meaning two, biathlon consists of two events, skiing and shooting, which are competed in during the same event. The ski course is usually a vague loop, with shooting targets placed at intervals. The skiers will ski around the course, stopping to shoot five shots at the targets.
If they miss any targets, there is a time penalty added to their total time. Their total time is calculated from all the time spent skiing, shooting, and going from one activity to the other. Again, it is the person with the shortest time who wins.DETAILED RULES
There are four types of competition:
Individual competition, men 20 kilometres race, junior men and women 15 kilometre race, women 10 kilometre.
Sprint competition, men and junior men 10 kilometres, women and junior women 7.5 kilometres.
Relay competition, men and junior men 4 x 7.5 kilometres, women and junior 3 x 7.5 kilometres.
Team competition, men 20 kilometre race, junior men and women 15 kilometre race, junior women 10 kilometre race.
Competitors start at 1 minute intervals, and must complete a set number of events between certain distances over the course.
20 Kilometre Men
4 bouts of shooting which take place between 4 and 18 kilometres, with at least 3 kilometres between shooting areas.
15 Kilometre Junior Men
3 bouts of shooting which take place between 4 and 13 kilometres, with at least 3 kilometres between shooting areas.
15 Kilometre Women
4 bouts of shooting which take place between 4 and 12 kilometres, with at least 3 kilometres between shooting areas.
10 Kilometre Junior Women
3 bouts of shooting which take place between 2 and 8 kilometres, with at least 2 kilometres between shooting areas.
Competitors start at 1 minute intervals, and must complete a set number of events between certain distances over the course. For each target the competitor misses, they must complete an extra 150 metres.
10 Kilometre Men and Junior Men
2 bouts of shooting which take place at about 2.5 and 7.5 kilometres, with 5 rounds fired from a lying position for the first, and a standing position for the second.
7.5 Kilometre Women and Junior Women
2 bouts of shooting which take place between 2.5 and 5 kilometres, with 5 rounds fired from a lying position for the first, and a standing position for the second.
Each team has four members for men's events, three for women's events. Each team member skis 7.5 kilometres with two rounds of shooting, one lying, one standing. Male teams cover 30 kilometres. Female teams cover 22 kilometres.
All first skiers from all teams start together. The first shooting session (lying) takes place at 2.5 kilometres. Each competitor has 8 rounds of ammunition for 5 targets. Each target must be hit before they can continue. If after eight rounds he/she has not hit all the targets, they ski a 150 metre length for each missed target.
The next shooting session is at 5 kilometres (standing), and the same rules apply.
A team is made up of 4 biathletes who race 20 kilometres (men), or 15 kilometres (women). There are four shooting bouts per team. Each team member will fire five rounds. Teams start at 2 minute intervals.
At shooting areas, the other team members race ahead and wait. If the shooter hits all five targets, the team continues. If not, the team races a 300 metre loop for each target missed.
Teams can overtake each other, but must do it in a serried formation. Similarly, at the finish line, the teams must cross in a serried formation.
The running time for all events from start to finish, including time between skiing and shooting, is added to all penalty minutes to give each competitor or team's total time. There is a 1 minute penalty for misses at shooting. In relays, sprints, and team events, a penalty loop is skiied for each miss.
The rifles must be non-automatic and with a calibre up to 5.6mm, and without magnifying sights. During the course, there is to be no rounds in the rifle. The rifles are loaded just prior to shooting. Competitors will carry the ammunition on themselves.
The targets for lying down are 45 centimetres (18 inches) across. For standing up, they are 115 centimetres (45 inches).
Serried - close, compact formation.
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